For other uses, seeCash flow (disambiguation).
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Acash flowis a real or virtual movement ofmoney:
a cash flow in its narrow sense is a payment (in a currency), especially from one central bank account to another; the term cash flow is mostly used to describe payments that are expected to happen in the future, are thus uncertain and therefore need to be forecasted with cash flows;
in a less specified sense describing (symbolic) payments into or out of a business, project, or financial product.
Cash flows are narrowly interconnected with the concepts ofvalue,interest rateandliquidity. A cash flow that shall happen on a future daytNcan be transformed into a cash flow of the same value int0.
Cash flows are often transformed into measures that give information e.g. on a companys value and situation:
to determine a projectsrate of returnor value. The time of cash flows into and out of projects are used as inputs in financial models such asinternal rate of returnandnet present value.
to determine problems with a businesssliquidity. Being profitable does not necessarily mean being liquid. A company can fail because of a shortage of cash even while profitable.
as an alternative measure of a businesssprofitswhen it is believed thataccrual accountingconcepts do not represent economic realities. For instance, a company may be notionally profitable but generating little operational cash (as may be the case for a company that barters its products rather than selling for cash). In such a case, the company may be deriving additional operating cash by issuing shares or raising additional debt finance.
cash flow can be used to evaluate the quality of income generated byaccrual accounting. When netincomeis composed of large non-cash items it is considered low quality.
to evaluate the risks within a financial product, e.g., matching cash requirements, evaluating default risk, re-investment requirements, etc.
Cash flow notion is based loosely on cash flow statement accounting standards. The term is flexible and can refer to time intervals spanning over past-future. It can refer to the total of all flows involved or a subset of those flows. Subset terms include net cash flow,operating cash flowandfree cash flow.
The (total) net cash flow of a company over a period (typically a quarter, half year, or a full year) is equal to the change in cash balance over this period: positive if the cash balance increases (more cash becomes available), negative if the cash balance decreases. The total net cash flow for a project is the sum of cash flows that are classified in three areas
Operational cash flows: Cash received or expended as a result of the companys internal business activities. Operating cash flow of a project is determined by: OCF=incremental earnings+depreciation=( earning before interest and tax-tax)+depreciation=earning before interest and tax*( 1-tax rate)+ depreciation= ( revenue – cost of good sold- operating expense- depreciation)* (1-tax rate)+depreciation= ( Revenue – cost of good sold- operating expense)* (1-tax rate)+ depreciation* (tax rate). Depreciation*(tax rate) which locates at the end of the formula is called depreciation shield through which we can see that there is a negative relation between depreciation and cash flow.
Changing in net working capital. It is the cost or revenue related to the companys short-term asset like inventory.
Capital spending. This is the cost or gain related to the companys fix asset such as the cash used to buy a new equipment or the cash which is gained from selling an old equipment.
The sum of the three component above will be the cash flow for a project.
And the cash flow for a company also include three parts:
Operating cash flow: refers to the cash received or loss because of the internal activities of a company such as the cash received from sales revenue or the cash paid to the workers.
Investment cash flow: refers to the cash flow which related to the companys fix asset such as equipment building and so on such as the cash used to buy a new equipment or a building
Financing cash flow: cash flow from a companys financing activities like issuing stock or paying dividends.
The sum of the three components above will be the total cash flow of a company.
The net cash flow only provides a limited amount of information. Compare, for instance, the cash flows over three years of two companies:
Company B has a higher yearly cash flow. However, Company A is actually earning more cash by its core activities and has already spent 45M in long term investments, of which the revenues will only show up after three years.
Consumption and cash-flow taxes in an international setting
(No. w19579). STICERD – Public Economics Programme Discussion Papers 03, Suntory and Toyota International Centres for Economics and Related Disciplines, LSE. National Bureau of Economic Research.
A Review of Academic Research on the Reporting of Cash Flows from Operations
Articles needing additional references from February 2015
This page was last edited on 10 April 2019, at 06:55